December 20, 2013

Ear Creation from Living Cells – Scientific Progress Reignites Ethical Questions

Scientists at Cornell University, led by Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering Lawrence Bonassar, have created an artificial ear using 3D Printing Technology. Their research goal is to be able to regenerate cartilage anywhere in the human body.

The science is fascinating. A camera takes a 3D image of a patient’s head, then ink containing living cells is used to formulate a custom ear that looks and acts like a natural ear.

The living cells used in the ink can be taken from the patients themselves, which is a longer and more painful process, or, as in this study, cells can be derived from collagen from rat tails combined with cartilage from cows’ ears.

The researchers, however, are looking at “ways to expand populations of human ear cartilage cells in the laboratory so that these cells can be used in the mold, instead of cow cartilage.” Could this create ethical complications, as seen in the HeLa cells used in cancer research?

Henrietta Lacks was an African-American woman who was the unwitting source of cells which were cultured by George Otto Gey to create the first known human immortal cell line for medical research. This is now known as the HeLa cell line. Her family members’ cells were also used in research without their consent and Henriettta’s medical records were published without consent, sparking a debate about the ethics of scientific research using human tissue.

According to the author of “The Immortal Life of Hentrietta Laks”, Rebecca Skloot:”A lot of the ethical questions raised by Henrietta’s story still haven’t been addressed today: Should people have a right to control what’s done with their tissues once they’re removed from their bodies? And who, if anyone, should profit from those tissues? Henrietta’s story is unusual in that her identity was eventually attached to her cells, so we know who she was. But there are human beings behind each of the billions of samples currently stored in tissue banks and research labs around the world. The majority of Americans have tissues on file being used in research somewhere, and most don’t realize it. Those samples come from routine medical procedures, fetal genetic-disease screening, circumcisions, and much more, and they’re very important for science—we rely on them for our most significant medical advances. No one wants that research to stop, but it’s pretty clear that many people want to know when their tissues are being used in research, and when there’s a potential for the results of such research to be used commercially. The story of Henrietta, her family, and the scientists involved put human faces on all of those issues, which can otherwise be pretty abstract.”

Bioethicist Ruth Faden wrote an op-ed piece for The Baltimore Sun several years ago in which she stated: “Happily, today, consent is regularly obtained to take tissue or other body components for research purposes. But Mrs. Lacks' story has brought new focus to many tough bioethical and public policy questions that persist. Chief among these are: What, exactly, should patients be asked to consent to if the fruits of the research are unpredictable? Should they be compensated if, years or decades later, institutions, scientists or drug companies benefit financially? Should each and every subsequent or conceivable use of human tissue require a separate consent from patients or their families? How do we protect patient privacy in such situations?”

As research continues to explode in areas such as the 3D printing of ears, will these ethical issues continue to be debated?

Learn more about this scientific breakthrough in The Cornell Chronicle or in this video.

 
This article was posted by The CECON Group, a science and engineering consulting firm providing experts in such fields as biomedical consulting, pharmaceutical consulting, and chemistry consulting.

 

 

December 16, 2013

PA Attorneys Now Required to be Tech Savvy


The Pennsylvania Supreme Court joined other states, such as Massachusetts, and amended its rules of professional conduct effective November 21st to include requirements that attorneys keep abreast of changes in relevant technology and take reasonable care to prevent inadvertent or unauthorized access to client information.

This change is in alignment with the ABA’s Rule 1.1, which charges attorneys with monitoring “the benefits and risks associated with relevant technology.” Will other states follow in MA and PA’s footsteps and add similar state guidelines?

Some suggestions to help busy attorneys meet this standard:

1. Discuss data security with staff members, experts, and consultants and have a written document security policy. Be sure to include security guidelines for portable devices (smartphones, tablets, thumb drives).

2. Be careful about using devices on public Wi-Fi networks.

3. Delete your Google history or cookies regularly to avoid targeted ads inadvertently appearing on your computer screen that could disclose your case strategy to someone looking over your shoulder.

4. Research the best software to organize and protect your paperless files.

5. Install security software on all your devices and do semi-annual checks to insure you and your staff are adequately protected from viruses and hackers.

6. Subscribe to e-alert services such as Technolawyer or USCERT to receive updates on new developments in technology.

Previous CECON posts have addressed issues in expert management related to technology and confidentiality (Do You Disclose Case Docs to Potential Experts? And ESI Management- Another Criteria for Expert Witness Selection).

A variety of other tips and resources for staying on top of technology can be found at Americanbar.org and Law.com.  

 
 
The CECON Group has been providing technical experts to attorneys since 1985. Full service expert searches by seasoned industry professionals are CECON’s focus.

 

 

December 4, 2013

Researchers Develop Wearable Battery

Wearable mobile electronic devices are a step closer to becoming a reality following the development of textile-based foldable batteries by a research team from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. The batteries are designed to be rechargeable via lightweight solar cells.

The battery utilizes a current collector, binder and separators that incorporate a nickel and polyurethane-coated polyester yarn. The composition allows the battery to be folded several thousand times without losing any of its functionality.

According to the researchers involved in the project, previous attempts at the technology have failed due to the batteries being too inflexible. More durable electrodes made by dipping cloth in nanoparticle solutions have been stronger but have an electrical resistance that is too high to allow them to store adequate amounts of energy.

The research team of Jang Wook Choi, Take-Soo Kim and Jung-Yong Lee, all of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, redesigned the electrodes utilizing nickel, which is highly conductive, and using it to coat the fabric. By using polyurethane fabric they were able to eliminate binding problems and allow the battery to maintain its integrity. Anodes and cathodes were made using conventional battery materials.

The product has been tested extensively and was found to be capable of being folded and unfolded ten thousand times. To date it has been utilized in a sweatshirt and a sweatband, but future applications may include other types of clothing, watches and backpacks. The units are sealed so that the fabric can be washed without concern of damaging the battery.

The batteries will be recharged using flexible solar cells that are also integrated into the fabric. Further development plans are to improve the batteries storage capabilities.  The researchers anticipate that the new technology can be produced in already-established facilities. 

For pictures and more details on this technology, click here.
 
The CECON Group has 26 battery experts who consult on legal cases and short term projects for businesses. The CECON Group has over 1200 technical experts in over 200 technical specialties in its network.